F (Lean Glossary)

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FIFO: (first-in, first-out) A production method in which the oldest remaining items in a batch are the fist to move forward in the production process.

Fill Rate: Also called Customer Service Ratio. This is a measure of the delivery performance of FG, expressed as a %. In a built to stock situation this ratio represents the numbers in quantity delivered against expected items to be delivered. In a built to order situation, this ratio represents the quantity delivered in units of time against the quantity to be delivered in that time unit.

Fish-bone diagram: (Ishikawa Diagram - one of the seven tools of problem solving)This is a cause and effect diagram enabling establishment of the real causes resulting into given results.

Five M's: Manpower, Machines, Materials, Methods and Measurement used at a Gemba.

Five Principles of the Gemba: Go to the Gemba, Examine the gembutsu, Apply temporary counter measures, find and eliminate the root cause & finally standardize to prevent recurrence.

Five S: A method of creating a clean and orderly workplace that exposes waste and errors. Five terms utilized to create a workplace suited for visual control and lean production.Sorting means to separate needed tools, parts, and instruction from unneeded materials and to remove the latter. Systematic Arrangement means to neatly arrange and identify parts and tools for ease of use. Spic & Span means to conduct a cleanup campaign. Standardizemeans to conduct Sort, Systematic Arrangement, and Spic & Span at frequent intervals to maintain a workplace in perfect condition. Self Discipline means to form the habit of always following the first Ss.

Fixed Costs: Costs that do not change by production or service/sales levels, such as rent, property tax, insurance etc. They are essential costs of being in business.

Fixed-Value Method: An error-proofing method that ensures the right quantity of parts is used or the right number of activities are performed.

Fixed Point Photography: Photography of the before and after situation of a given situation to establish improvement or decline. Video recording is preferred.

Flow: A main objective of the lean production effort, and one of the important concepts that passed directly from Henry Ford to Toyota. Ford recognized that, ideally, production should flow continuously all the way from raw material to the customer and envisioned realizing that ideal through a production system that acted as one long conveyor.

FMEA: Failure Mode Effect Analysis. This is an analytical tool used to predict and eliminate in advance any potential design defect of a new product. This is done by analysing the the effects of failure modes of component parts on the final product performance-called Design FMEA. The tool can be further used to review activity of a new production facility called Process FMEA.

FTT: (First Time Through) A metric that measures the percentage of units or aspects of a service that are completely without error the first time they go through the defined work process.

Functional Layout: The practice of grouping machines or activities by type of operation performed.

Future State Map: A blueprint for lean implementation. The organization¹s vision, which forms the basis of implementation plan by helping to design how the process should operate.

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